Anfal and Halabja Genocide: Lessons Not Learned

Prof. Ofra Bengio, a Senior Research Fellow at MDC, published an article in "The Journal of the Middle East and Africa" about the Halabja genocide and the lessons learned from this Kurdish trauma.


"The 1987–1988 Anfal Campaign during which the Iraqi Baath regime massacred some 180,000 Kurdish Iraqis, 5,000 of whom killed by chemical weapons in the town of Halabja, is considered one of the major traumas in modern Kurdish history. Yet a few decades later, the Kurds appear to have risen from their proverbial ashes, embarking against great odds on an ambitious state building project in northern Iraq. With this story of "trauma and redemption" as background, this paper considers the lessons learned from this Kurdish experiment; lessons drawn not only by the Kurds themselves, but by all those who willy-nilly accompanied them on this journey; the Iraqi state, the international community, and the United States."