I presented an example of this in my article “Jihad Works Both Ways: Representations of the New Crusaders,” Beehive, vol. 5, issue 6, June 2017.
 Manuel R. Torres-Soriano, “Jihadism in the Spanish Language After the Barcelona Attacks,” The George Washington University’s Program on Extremism, August 2017.
 Hector G. Barnes, El verdadero espíritu español es la mofa: cómo un meme reconcilió a un país dividido, El Confidencial, 25 August 2017.
 Rodrigo Díaz de Viver, known as El Cid Campeador (1044-1099), was for a time a mercenary who served Muslim rulers of Spain, even in their wars against Christians.
 Phillip Kleinfeld, Calling Bullshit on the Anti-Refugee Memes Flooding the Internet, Vice.com. 10 September 2015; and also Rebecca Ruiz, Don't Ban Refugees. Ban Garbage memes about refugees. Mashable.com. 2 February 2017.
 Laura M. Mateo, Primeros ataques islamófobos contra mezquitas en España, el Mundo, 20 August 2017; Conor Gaffey, Newsweek, 25 August 2017,; On Islamophobia in Europe, see: Enes Bayraklı and Farid Hafez (eds.), “European Islamophobia Report - 2016”, Turkey, Istanbul: SETA -Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research, 2016.