Nico Prucha, “Part 5: Influence and information Campaigns: from Twitter to Telegram,” Online Jihad: Monitoring Jihadist Online Communities, September 17, 2017.
 Barak Mendelson, The Al-Qaeda Franchise: The Expansion of al-Qaeda and its Consequences (USA, NY: Oxford University Press, 2016)
 Gabriel Weimann, “Terror on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube,” The Brown Journal of World Affairs, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Spring / Summer 2010): 45-54.
 Nico Prucha, “How well Established is the Jihadist Movement on Telegram?,” Online Jihad: Monitoring Jihadist Online Communities, March 15, 2018.
 The Al-Kafah channel was accessible until February 2018. It was then closed and later reopened as a private channel that is accessible by invitation only.
 The name Al-Zalaka (“The Slippery land”)is derived from the battle of Al-Zalaka between the Muslim army that invaded Spain via the straits of Gibraltar and the Christian army that attempt to repel them in 1086. Al-Zalaka channel, Telegram, March 13, 2018 Note: the channel has since been closed.
 There is no shareable link for the Al-Hur (Freedom) Telegram channel.