Brandon Friedman is a research fellow at the Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies at Tel Aviv University and a senior fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI).
 F. Gregory Gause, “Why the Iran Deal Scares Saudi Arabia,” The New Yorker, November 26, 2013; Zaki Shalom and Yoel Guzansky, “U.S.- Saudi Relations: On the Verge of a Crisis?” INSS Insight 504, January 1, 2014.
 Efraim Halevy review of Saudi Arabia and the Conflict in Palestine (2012, in Hebrew) by Michael Kahanov, Bustan 4:1 (2013), 92.
 In contrast to the Saudi critique of the U.S. decisions to back away from employing force in the region, some observers see it positive terms: David Ignatius, “Obama’s relentlessly pragmatic diplomacy,” Washington Post, December 12, 2013; and, Gideon Rachman, “The year the US pivoted back to the Middle East,” Financial Times, December 23, 2013.
 For the Saudi view of how Iran won Iraq, see: Joseph Kostiner, “The GCC States and the Security Challenges of the Twenty-First Century,” Mideast Security and Policy Studies, No. 86, September 2010 (Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel).
 The Saudi Grand Mufti has officially discouraged Saudis from going to fight in Syria, however, many Saudi religious leaders have been instrumental in financially supporting jihadis in Syria. See: Elizabeth Dickinson, “Playing With Fire,” Saban Center at Brookings Institution, Analysis Paper No. 16, December 2013.
 See also: Dickinson, p. 15.
 Hassan Hassan, “Why Syria’s Islamic Front is bad news for radical groups,” The National, December 3, 2013.
 See also: Aron Lund,“Pushing Back Against the Islamic State of Iraq in the Levant: The Path to Conflict,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, January 6, 2013, and Aron Lund, “Pushing Back Against the Islamic State of Iraq in the Levant: The Syria Revolutionaries’ Front and the Mujahideen Army,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, January 7, 2013.
 Samer Abboud, “Hard Road Ahead for the Syrian Exile Government,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, November 15, 2013; and, “Syrian Opposition: Risks of Fragmentation and Necessity of Consensus,” Al Jazeera Center for Studies, December 22, 2013.
 Ariel Ben Solomon, “Saudi and French forces carry out joint military drill,” Jerusalem Post, November 14, 2013; Khamis al-Zahrani, “Saudi Arabia and France continue joint military exercises,” Al Arabiya News, November 18, 2013.
 John Vinocur, “France, Iran and ‘The Front of Mistrust’” The Wall Street Journal, January 6, 2014.
 In March, June, and December 2011. For more detail, see: Brandon Friedman, “The Concept of Deterrence in Arab and Muslim Thought: The Arab Gulf States,” Project Supervisor Shmuel Bar, Herzliya Conference Working Paper, June 2012, http://www.herzliyaconference.org/eng/_Uploads/dbsAttachedFiles/BrandonF....
 The Wall Street Journal, 17 January 2012.
 Steven A. Cook, “Don’t Fear a Nuclear Arms Race in the Middle East,” Foreign Policy, 2 April 2012, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/04/02/don_t_fear_a_nuclear_ar....
 Yitzhak Gal, “Arab Use of Energy: Oil Out, Renewable Energy In,” Iqtisadi 3:7: September 15, 2013.